WiFi Ninjas

WN Podcast 027 – Channel vs Spectrum Utilisation & Ghost Frames with Ben Miller – Part 1

Welcome to our new WiFi Ninjas Podcast episode! We are mega privileged to have Ben Miller on our show today, where we’re discussing channel utilisation vs spectrum utilisation vs duty cycle, ghost frames and potential impact of setting minimum data rates too high.

Podcast frames below.

Channel Utilization

  • What is it
  • Does lower % always mean a better RF?
  • Good vs bad channel utilisation
  • Does channel bonding affect channel utilization?
  • Shall we rely on channel utilization for tshooting?

Internet’s favourite: channel utilization vs spectrum utilization vs duty cycle

  • Real Time FFT [dBm]
    • Current spectrum utilisation
  • Spectrum Utilisation [%] = FFT Duty Cycle [%]
    • Spectrum utilisation over a short time period
  • Waterfall = Swept Spectrogram
    • RF Power over time

Tools

  • Tools of choice for channel / spectrum utilisation
  • Protocol analysis

And a very helpful screenshot from Joel’s presentation!

Tons of love x,

WiFi Ninjas

WN Podcast 026 – RTLS – Part 2 – Real World Testing

Welcome to our new WiFi Ninjas Podcast episode!

This is the continuation of the RTLS discussion, focusing on real-world tests and demos!

Three things have changed since we recorded the podcast:

  • We’ve confirmed that you can draw wayfinding paths in Prime, called ‘Rails’ in a Cisco world!
  • We’ve discussed Mist presence and analytics network-wide stats that you can include in a report; new functionality has just been added, where you can see all that stats live! Big thing from Mist, thank you guys 🙂
  • We are discussing WiFi Trilateration (lateration, so distance based, without any special AP requirements – internal omni is OK) RTLS and NOT WiFi Triangulation (that is angle based and requires multiple antenna arrays or mechanically agile antennas)

With tons of love x,

WiFi Ninjas

WN Podcast 025 – RTLS – Part 1 – The Theory

Welcome to our new WiFi Ninjas Podcast episode!

Today we kick of the RTLS discussion, starting with a theory! We’ll cover how different technologies like WiFi or BLE can make RTLS work and what the RTLS really is.

We’ll discuss RTLS functional blocks like network wide presence stats, location aware functions like blue dot and zone location analysis and actions and engagement.

 It’s a vast topic, and we’ll release a blog about it shortly, so this show notes are rather short! Stay tuned 🙂

With tons of love x,

WiFi Ninjas

WN Podcast 024 – Mist Tech Talk with Phil Keeley – Part 2

Welcome to our new WiFi Ninjas Podcast episode!

We really wanted to do a tech deep dive into Mist Systems for a good few months now. Phil Keeley made it happen for us and we are eternally grateful for Phil sharing his Mist knowledge and experience with us! Here is what we have discussed:

  • Intro into Mist
  • WiFi
    • What’s available – proper WiFi 6?
    • How is it different
    • Assurance and Monitoring
      • Machine learning
      • Use Dash or API?
    • AI-Driven RRM?
    • Dynamic Captures
    • Guest WiFi
      • Local
      • Guest ethernet port – what is it?
      • Centralised – how?
      • Splash pages – what options do we have?
      • Integration with RADIUS?
    • Corp and BYOD
      • Integration with RADIUS?
      • Integration with MDM platforms?
      • Sync with AD in the cloud?
    • Policing
      • Answer to TrustSec?
      • What happens to VLANs and ACLs?
  • Marvis
    • How can we interact with Marvis?
    • Tshooting – can we trust Marvis to resolve issues automatically?
    • Anomalies and root causes
    • Data correlation – affected devices, causes, frequency etc.
  • vBLE
    • Mist implementation of vBLE
      • Overview
      • General RF design for vBLE RTLS
      • WiFi + BLE vs BLE only – scalability and savings?
    • How is it different from WiFi (AoA)?
    • Blue dot and wayfinding – where do we get apps from?
    • What do we need to engage with clients?
      • Examples: coupons, notifications, targeted marketing
    • Do we really need those apps?
      • Assets visibility
    • Location API – what can we achieve?
    • Mobile SDK – what can we achieve?
  • Integration with Juniper
    • Switches
    • Firewalls
    • Anything else?
  • Licensing
  • Support

With tons of love x,

WiFi Ninjas

WN Podcast 023 – Mist Tech Talk with Phil Keeley – Part 1

Welcome to our new WiFi Ninjas Podcast episode!

We really wanted to do a tech deep dive into Mist Systems for a good few months now. Phil Keeley made it happen for us and we are eternally grateful for Phil sharing his Mist knowledge and experience with us! Here is what we have discussed:

  • Intro into Mist
  • WiFi
    • What’s available – proper WiFi 6?
    • How is it different
    • Assurance and Monitoring
      • Machine learning
      • Use Dash or API?
    • AI-Driven RRM?
    • Dynamic Captures
    • Guest WiFi
      • Local
      • Guest ethernet port – what is it?
      • Centralised – how?
      • Splash pages – what options do we have?
      • Integration with RADIUS?
    • Corp and BYOD
      • Integration with RADIUS?
      • Integration with MDM platforms?
      • Sync with AD in the cloud?
    • Policing
      • Answer to TrustSec?
      • What happens to VLANs and ACLs?
  • Marvis
    • How can we interact with Marvis?
    • Tshooting – can we trust Marvis to resolve issues automatically?
    • Anomalies and root causes
    • Data correlation – affected devices, causes, frequency etc.
  • vBLE
    • Mist implementation of vBLE
      • Overview
      • General RF design for vBLE RTLS
      • WiFi + BLE vs BLE only – scalability and savings?
    • How is it different from WiFi (AoA)?
    • Blue dot and wayfinding – where do we get apps from?
    • What do we need to engage with clients?
      • Examples: coupons, notifications, targeted marketing
    • Do we really need those apps?
      • Assets visibility
    • Location API – what can we achieve?
    • Mobile SDK – what can we achieve?
  • Integration with Juniper
    • Switches
    • Firewalls
    • Anything else?
  • Licensing
  • Support

With tons of love x,

WiFi Ninjas

WN Podcast 022 – Best of #WLPC Prague 2019 with CTS and Banters!

Listen to our joint podcast with Clear-to-Send and Wireless Banter Show, where we go behind and in front of the scenes at #WLPC EU 2019 in Prague! Thanks @Matt @Rowell @Francois @Jussi @Jerry @Joel @Keith @Peter @Gjermund @Andrew and Dick Burner aka @Nick!

Also see Clear to Send and Wireless Banter Show!

With tons of love x,

WiFi Ninjas

WN Podcast 021 – Cisco Catalyst 9800 – Built & Basics

Welcome to our new WiFi Ninjas Podcast episode!

Today, we kick of the Cisco Catalyst 9800 Podcast series, where we will cover some nitty & gritty stuff and share our real world deployment tips and experiences about those new, hot WLCs!

Let’s start with basics 🙂

  • What is C9800?
  • 9800-80 – 2RU Appliance
    • 80Gbps
    • 6000 APs
    • 64,000 Clients
    • 100Gbps Uplink Module Option!
  • 9800-40 – 1RU Appliance
    • 40Gbps
    • 2000 APs
    • 32,000 Clients
  • 9800-CL – Public/Private Cloud Virtual Controller
    • VMWare/KVM/AWS/GCP
    • 2Gbps of centrally-switched traffic
    • 6,000 APs
    • 64,000 Clients
    • Supported features that were not supported on the AireOS vWLC
      • SSO High Availability
      • Local or Flex Mode APs
      • Guest Anchoring
  • 9800-SW – Embedded 9300/9500 Switch Controller
    • 200 APs
    • 4,000 Clients
    • Indirect AP Support (APs can be connected to downstream switches)
  • 9800-L
    • 250 Aps
    • 5000 clients
    • Max throughput 5Gbps
    • Fixed uplinks 2 x 10gbps
  • Features
  • Built
    • VMware
      • Networking
        • 3 interfaces
        • HA considerations
        • Trunk
          • Accept Promiscuous Mode!
        • Central vs Flex
        • OOB
          • Not used
      • Kill the autoinstall, CLI (at least for us) is quicker
      • VLAN and SVI for mgmt
      • Set country code
      • Specify interface (mgmt SVI) to be used for wireless mgmt / AP join
      • Create a cert, validate its creation with sh wireless management trustpoint
      • Configure SSH
    • Physical
  • Challenges
    • Internal DHCP
      • ‘Reserved Only’ turned on by default
      • Configure DHCP Pool, starting IP, ending IP, lease time, gate, DNS, domain
      • Set DHCP Server IP address to be C9800 mgmt.
    • Prime bug
    • Compatibility with other Cisco infra
    • AAA attribute
  • Guest Flow
    • MAB CWA
    • Redirection ACL is not applied anywhere, it’s just referred to by ISE AuthZ Profile
    • Use WLAN guest ACL or have it referenced back by RADIUS

With tons of love x,

WiFi Ninjas

WN Podcast 020 – Airport WiFi Design with Jim Palmer – Part 2

Welcome to our new WiFi Ninjas Podcast episode! This is a continuation to an extremely interesting discussion about WiFi Airport Design with the best WiFi Airport Ninja in the world – Jim Palmer!

We’re discussing rate limiting effects on the network, security, authentication and more!

As mentioned on the show, here is the link for Jim’s cool video about rate limiting, that really is eyes opening! 🙂

Thanks for listening and enjoy! And comment. And shout if you like it or don’t like it or if you’d like us to talk about anything specific in future episodes!

With tons of love x,

WiFi Ninjas

WN Podcast 019 – Airport WiFi Design with Jim Palmer – Part 1

Welcome to our new WiFi Ninjas Podcast episode! Today we kick off a very interesting discussion around WiFi Airport Design with probably the best WiFi Airport specialist in the world – Jim Palmer!

  • A bit about Jim
    • CWNE #304
    • Ekahau Master 31
    • Runs a very busy American Airport
  • Wireless Physical Design
    • APs / Antennas Placement and types
    • RF considerations
  • Wireless Configuration
    • High Density approach
    • Roaming approach
  • Apps
    • Apps used by clients
    • Apps used by stuff
  • Project Lifecycle
    • Project Management of this thing
    • Predictive, pre-deployment and post deployment surveys etc.
    • Liasing with contractors and 3rd parties
    • Additional Testing?
  • LAN & WAN
    • Internet pipe
    • LAN structure
    • Throughput concerns
    • Cabling
    • Bottlenecks
  • Security
    • Onboarding
    • Auth
    • What infra used?
    • Encryption
    • Content filtering
    • Additional security features
  • Challenges
    • DFS?
    • Distance to the switch
    • PoE
    • Mounting restrictions
    • Obstructions, metal
    • Other networks, concessions
    • Interferers
  • Ninja Tips
  • Lessons learned

Thanks for listening and enjoy! Shout if you like it or don’t like it or if you’d like us to talk about anything specific in future episodes – we would be delighted to know your thoughts!

With tons of love x,

WiFi Ninjas

WN Podcast 018 – Protocol Analysis Talk with Peter MacKenzie – Part 2

Welcome to our new WiFi Ninjas Podcast episode! This a second part of our protocol analysis discussion with Jedi Grandmaster Peter MacKenzie!

A bit about Peter:

  • CWNE #33
  • Head of Technical Operations at MarQuest Limited
  • Graduated from the University of Hull with a 1st class honours degree
  • Co-author of the CWAP study guide published by Wiley
  • Member of the CWNE Board of Advisers

Do we still call you Peter? We see Jim Palmer is trying to find a new nickname for you 😀

  • Peter Packets?
  • Sir sniff a lot
  • The Duke of Frames
  • Peter McPacketface

A bit about MarQuest limited: – http://www.marquest.com/

  • MarQuest’s customer base includes large organisations across several sectors such as finance, education, government, retail and legal services. Operating from UK offices in Beverley (Yorkshire) and Oxford, we provide services and solutions to all national regions. Our international reputation for technical excellence has led to global provision of services and product supply to countries in mainland Europe, North America and APAC countries (including India and Australia).

Protocol Analysis

  • What is protocol analysis
  • Capturing tools
  • Capture location and duration
  • Capture on a single channel, multiple channel, 1SS, 2SS, etc.
  • Roaming in captures
  • Capture and display filters, colouring, columns, etc.
  • Decryption procedures
  • Other tools: WLAN scanners and discovery tools, captures visualisation and stats
  • Centralised captures and monitoring, alerting and forensic tools
  • Tshoot framework: Define, scale, causes, capture, analyse, observe, remedy, document

Spectrum Analysis

  • What is spectrum analysis
  • Spectrum analysis tools and views
  • Noise and SNR
  • Locate and identify WiFi and non-WiFi interferers based on their RF signature
  • Duty cycle vs spectrum utilisation
  • CCI vs ACI – understand impact of channel interference on WiFi performance
  • Identify 802.11 PHYs looking at FFT

PHY Layers and Technologies

  • PLCP and PMD sublayers
  • PHY technologies in captures: PHY headers, preambles, training fields, frame aggregation and data rates
  • Pseudo-headers: RSSI, rate, MCS, duration, channel, properties, noise, etc.
  • Protocol analysers limits: supported PHYs, SS, SGI, etc.

MAC Sublayer and Functions

  • Frame encapsulation and frame aggregation
  • MAC Frame Format
  • 802.11 Management Frame Formats
  • Data and QoS Data Frame Formats
  • 802.11 Control Frame Formats
  • BSS config: country code, rates, beacons, WMM, RSN, HT/VHT/HE, channels, SSID name, CRC

WLAN Medium Access

  • Distributed Coordination Function (DCF): carrier sense, energy detect, NAV, contention window, random backoff and spacing
  • Enhanced Distributed Channel Access (EDCA)
  • Wi-Fi Multimedia (WMM)
  • Analyse QoS configuration and operations: captures and end-to-end implementation

802.11 Frame Exchanges

  • Discovery, authentication, association
  • EAP and PSK auth
  • 4-way handshake
  • Roaming optimisations (802.11r, v and k) and considerations (sticky clients, excessive roaming)
  • ACK, RTS/CTS, QoS Data, Block ACK
  • Analyse HT/VHT/HE specific transmission methods
  • MIMO, TxBF, MU-MIMO, MRC
  • Frame aggregation (A-MSDU and A-MPDU)
  • Power Saving operations
  • Protection mechanisms
  • Band Steering 

Thanks for listening and enjoy! And comment. And shout if you like it or don’t like it or if you’d like us to talk about anything specific in future episodes!

With tons of love x,

WiFi Ninjas